Information technology (IT) Notes Networking




Notes  Networking




Introduction
Today everywhere like banks, IT Company, retail sector, education, transportation etc. you could find the implementation of computer networking.
A network is connection of two or more computers that are linked to share resources (Hardware/Software).This lesson gives idea about what is network and how many types of network we have? What are the advantages and disadvantages of computer network? And the different network devices for LAN/WAN that are used to setup computer network.

This lesson also gives you practical hands on experience on network Communication, internet, basic network security, cyber security etc. Additionally it also helps the learner on various network security tools.

Here you will also learn about what the social networking sites are and how to access them safely.


What is network?

A network is two or more computers, or other electronic devices, connected together so that they can exchange data.
For example a network allows computers to share files, users to message each other, a whole room of computers to share a single printer, etc.



Let's have look on network diagram. You can see many computers,server,printer are connected through cables for resource sharing.


Why do our computer need network?


There are some reasons why someone with more than one computers want to connect into a network. What the network will actually be used for ?, of course it will vary depending on the needs of the person or company who is creating the network.

Networks can be used for simple tasks, such as sharing a printer, or it can be used for more advanced applications such as worldwide video conferencing.

The list that follows some of the reasons for networking computers:
       File sharing. Networking makes it very easy for the users on the network to share application files. For an example when we are able to download a song from internet it means that song is stored on a particular computer over the internet and has been publicly shared over the internet that's why we are able to download anything like movie/any document/songs etc by the use of internet. So this is known as file sharing.
       Hardware sharing. Users can share devices such as printers, CD-ROM drives, and hard drives.
Hardware sharing example


Given picture tells you hardware resource sharing. As We know printer is hardware device and everyone is printing his/her document sitting in his desk/seat through the one printer. it means this printer is shared with everyone on the network. so this will be one example for hardware sharing


User communication- We mostly utilize internet for chatting/video conferencing. it means we are making use of computer network for our communication with friends/family etc who are in the different cities. it is only possible because of Computer network.

There are two types of computer networks
       LAN
       WAN
       Local Area Network (LAN): A LAN is two or more connected computers sharing certain resources in a relatively small geographic location (the same building, for example).




is




Local Area Network (LAN)

   Wide Area Network (WAN): A WAN typically consists of 2 or more LANs. The computers are linked by telephone lines, radio waves, satellites etc.The Internet is the largest Wide Area Network (WAN) in existence.


Advantages of Installing a Network in schools
1)     Connections- Administrators, instructors, and even students and guests can be connected using the campus network.
2)     Services-The school can provide services, such as registration, school directories, course schedules, access to research, and email accounts, and many others. (Remember, network services are generally provided by servers).
3)     Internet-The school can provide network users with access to the internet.
4)     Computing resources-A high quality printer that is installed in the network for whole campus can be used by instructor or student both.
5)     Flexible Access-School networks allow students to access their information from connected devices throughout the school. Students can begin an assignment in their classroom, save part of it on a public access area of the network(Server).
6)     Workgroup Computing-Software allows many users to work on a document or project concurrently. For example, educators located at various schools within a county could simultaneously contribute their ideas about new curriculum standards to the same document, spreadsheets, or website.



Disadvantages of Installing a Network in school
1)     Expensive to Install-Large campus networks will be expensive in case of more computers Cabling, network cards, switches, routers, wireless access points, and software can get expensive, and the installation would certainly require the services of lab technicians who will handle the network.
2)     Servers Fail-Although a network server is no more subject to failure than any other computer, when the files server "goes down" the entire network may come to stop.
3)     Cables May Break- one broken cable can stop the entire network.
4)     Security and compliance-Network security is very important. A school network should be subject to more strict security requirements than a corporate/company network, because of its chances of storing personal and confidential information of network users.

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